Sunday, May 24, 2020
Literature Review Critical Analysis of Frankenstein The 1931 film, Frankenstein, which was directed by James Whale changed the mad-scientist/horror movie scene permanently. Although it is almost a century old, people are still reenacting it and discussing it. This film is about a young man named Henry Frankenstein. Henry has an obsession with creating life. Fritz, HenryÃ¢â¬â¢s assistant, helped collect body parts from recently deceased corpses. The two men got to work, binding the parts together, to create a whole human body. Using electricity from a thunderstorm, they managed to bring the body to life. The assistant was messing around in the lab and switched the brain they were using with a deceased criminalÃ¢â¬â¢s brain. Little did they know that the person they created with science would become a psycho killer. Frankenstein had such a huge impact on the world because it mainly focused on science in a time period where science was rarely talked about. Teaching science during this time was unheard of. When this film was releas ed, school teachers werenÃ¢â¬â¢t even allowed to teach evolution to their classes. This is one of the reasons why this movie was such a big hit and left such an impact on viewers. Stephen Gould, author of many essays regarding science, explains the film further and touches on the science depicted in it. Gould focuses on the idea of nature versus nurture. He questions whether nurture really does effect the development of a human brain. Gould talks aboutShow MoreRelatedThe Representation Of The Monster1515 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagessurfaces, these film industry companies to take them into their own hands, which usually altering the integrity of the text. Once specific example that can be found interesting is the representation of the monster in Frankenstein. In this text the exploration of why director, James Whale, had altered the appearance of the monster not only in the visual aspect, but also the internal knowledge he obtained in the novel, but not in the movie. According to the Oxford English Dictionary one of the definitionsRead MoreThe Representation Of The Monster1480 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagessurfaces, these film industry companies to take them into their own hands, which usually altering the integrity of the text. Once specific example that can be found interesting is the representation of the monster in Frankenstein. In this text the exploration of why director, James Whale, had altered the appearance of the monster not only in the visual aspect, but also the internal knowledge he obtained in the novel, but not in the movie. According to the Oxford English Dictionary one of the definitionsRead MoreAnalysis Of The Movie The Bride Of Frankenstein 1514 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagestwo is a better horror movie. The first movie that I watched for this discussion is the Bride of Frankenstein, this movie was made in 1935 and directed by James Whale. The Bride of Frankenstein is a sequel to The movie Frankenstein which follows the after math of the suspected death of Frankensteins monster. The second movie that I watched was The Conjuring 2 released in June,2016 and directed by James Wan. The Conjuring 2 follows two paranormal investigators that travel to London to help a motherRead MoreMasculinity in Chuck Palahniuks Work7062 Words Ã |Ã 29 Pageseffects of the docile modern workplace as well as advertising and the absence of Ã¢â¬Ëa great warÃ¢â¬Ë, using the fight club as a cure for this frustration. However, I believe that this analysis is just as one-layered and as an ill-informed .com purchasing site review . It is these types of approaches that have frightened audiences into believing that all men want to do is pummel each other. On the surface, the reader can presume that Palahniuk is angered by the emasculating effects of consumerism as Fight ClubRead MoreThe Studio System Essay14396 Words Ã |Ã 58 PagesCukor, Frank Borzage * Actresses: Greta Garbo, Joan Crawford, Norma Shearer, Myrna Loy, Jean Harlow * Actors: Clark Gable, Robert Taylor, William Powell, Walter Pidgeon, Melvyn Douglas, Spencer Tracy, Mickey Rooney, James Stewart * Typical Films: Camille, Grand Hotel, Dinner at Eight, Mutiny on the Bounty, Thin Man series of films, The Wizard of Oz Paramount --------- * Known For: European sophistication * In Charge:Read MoreLogical Reasoning189930 Words Ã |Ã 760 PagesMonticello; Phyllis Berger, Diablo Valley College; Kevin Galvin, East Los Angeles College; Jacquelyn Ann Kegley, California State University-Bakersfield; Darryl Mehring, University of Colorado at Denver; Dean J. Nelson, Dutchess Community College; James E. Parejko, Chicago State University; Robert Sessions, Kirkwood Community College; and Stephanie Tucker, California State University Sacramento. Thinking and writing about logical reasoning has been enjoyable for me, but special thanks go to my children
Wednesday, May 13, 2020
Every year over 3 million reports of child abuse are made involving more than 6 million children. The United States has one of the worst records of child abuse losing 4-7 children a day to the abuse. Abuse is when any behavior or action that is used to scare, harm, threaten, control or intimidate another person. Child abuse is a behavior outside the norms of conduct and entails substantial risk of causing physical or emotional harm. There are four main types of child abuse; physical abuse, sexual abuse, emotional abuse, and neglect. PHYSICAL Abuse Physical abuse is one of the most common form of child abuse. Defined as non-accidental trauma or physical injury caused by punching, beating, kicking, biting, burning or otherwise harming a child, physical abuse is the most visible form of child Abuse. Children who are physically abused can develop child traumatic stress. They are also at risk for depression and anxiety. How can you tell if someone you know is being physically abused? Well physical abuse comes with some symptoms you can look for. Any injury to a child who is not crawling yet Visible and severe injuries injuries at different stages of healing On different surfaces of the body Unexplained or explained in a way that doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t make sense Distinctive shape Frequency, timing and history of injuries (frequent, after weekends, vacations, school absences) There are also some signs that the abuser has. The abuser may seem to dislike the child byShow MoreRelatedThe Effects Of Child Abuse On Children935 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesChild abuse has been an issue in America since the beginning of time, but lately there has gradually been an increase in reported incidents of abuse. There are several types of child abuse that are present in todayÃ¢â¬â¢s society. The different types of abuse include physical, emotional and sexual abuse. Of the different maltreatment types, four-fifths (78.3%) of unique victims were neglected, 17.6 percent were physically abused, 9.2 percent were sexually abused, 8.1 percent were psychologically maltreatedRead MoreChild Abuse And Its Effects On Children Essay1489 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesindividuals corrected. However, there are cases that have not been solved or not stopped by the law. Child abuse is common. Child abuse can be caused by a variety of reasons. Scientist have been studying and they have some ideas on w hat prompt people to harm children (Ian Hacking). They are trying to end child abuse, but there is so much they can do. Many children abuse incidents are not reported. Child abuse may have many causes as in way the abuser does it. One specific factor is the background of theRead MoreChild Abuse And Its Effects On Children913 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesseveral types of abuse, thereÃ¢â¬â¢s physical, emotional, verbal and several others abuses. But the abuse I would like to focus on is child abuse. Domestic violence towards children is important because there is a way to prevent it from happening. Typical parents and caregivers do not intend to abuse their children. Abuse is mainly directed toward the behaviors that are given off towards one another. Author David Gil defines child abuse as an occurrence where a caretaker injures a child, not by accidentRead MoreChild Abuse Is An Effect On Children1657 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesIn 2010 according to the census bureau there were 74,100,000 U.S children between the ages of 0-17 being abused and 3.3 million referrals. This effected on average 1-10 U.S families and children, there were more than 32,200,000 U.S families with children under the age of 18 according to the 2010 census bureau. From the 3.3 million hotline calls in 2010 there were less than 475,000 sustained cases (2010 NCANDS: 436,321 sustained +24,976 indicated = 461,297 total) resulting in about 15% of hotlineRead MoreChild Abuse And Its Effects On Children1317 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesChild abuse has long been an ongoing social problem; this abuse has been one of the repeatedly difficult accusations to prove in our criminal justice system. Child abuse causes many years of suffering for victims. Children abused suffer from chemical imbalances, behavioral issues and are at high risk for becoming abusers or being abused in adult relationships. This cycle of learned behavior and suffering will be a hopeless reoccurring problem unless the criminal justice system and p rotocols for abusersRead MoreChild Abuse And Its Effects On Children1488 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pages Ã¢â¬Æ' In addressing child abuse we are confronted with a series of problems. On the one hand, there is a lack of the true extent of the phenomenon because no data are available and that the issue, often refers to the most intimate spaces of family life. Furthermore, cultural and historical traditions affect the way each society faces this problem. Finally, there are varying opinions as to its definition and classification, as well as the consequences of child abuse may have and its subsequent therapeuticRead MoreChild Abuse And Its Effects On Children1263 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pages Child Abuse Child abuse is any behavior which, by action or omission, produces physical or psychological damage to a person less than 18 years, affecting the development of his personality. In homes, it is believed that the most effective way to educate children is using the abuse. This form of punishment it used as an instrument of correction and moral training strategy as it is the first and most persistent justification of damage and maltreated mothers parents inflict on their children. SocietyRead MoreChild Abuse And Its Effects On Children1160 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesMost parents and other caregivers do not intend to hurt their children, but abuse is defined by the effect on the child, not the motivation of the parents or caregiver. Tens of thousands of children each year are traumatized by physical, sexual, and emotional abusers or by caregivers who neglect them, making child abuse as common as it is shocking. Most of us canÃ¢â¬â¢t imagine what would make an adult use violence against a child, and the worse the behavior is, the more unimaginable it seems. ButRead MoreChild Abuse And Its Effects On Children1132 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesIntroduction Child abuse takes many different forms. Including physical, sexual, emotional, or neglect of a children by parents, guardians, or others responsible for a child s welfare. Regardless of the type of abuse, the childÃ¢â¬â¢s devolvement is greatly impacted. The childÃ¢â¬â¢s risk for emotional, behavioral, academic, social, and physical problems in life increase. According to the Child Maltreatment Report by the ChildrenÃ¢â¬â¢s Bureau (1999) the most common form of child abuse in the United States isRead MoreChild Abuse And Its Effects On Children1126 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesMrs.Pettit 6 June 2015 Child Abuse Ã¢â¬Å"ItÃ¢â¬â¢s easier to throw away a child who reacts to his abuse than attempt to heal his painÃ¢â¬ - Dwight E. Abbot . As a world we need to protect our children from child abuse whether the abuser is emotionally disabled or not mentally stable if we make a change to stopping child abuse many children lives can be saved. Child abuse endangers the childÃ¢â¬â¢s physical and emotional health and development. Our society needs to prevent child abuse at all cost. Throughout the
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
Phonological awareness is an important aspect in the fundamentals of reading. It is the first step in literacy. Children can learn phonological awareness in a variety of ways. We will write a custom essay sample on Teaching Preschool Children Reading or any similar topic only for you Order Now Rhyming, sentence and word recognition, sound knowledge, phonemes, letter identification, spelling, and games which require active listening are a few of the techniques used by teachers in the classroom. All of these methods help in a childÃ¢â¬â¢s reading and speech fluency.All children need to learn how to read and write in order to survive in todayÃ¢â¬â¢s society. There have been many different methods used in order to teach phonemic awareness to preschool children. Phonemic awareness is the capability of an individual to differentiate, identify and manipulate specific sounds. An example would be a child combining and blending the sounds in the word cat. Many people believe that phonics and phonemic awareness are the same thing. However, phonic awareness is recognizing that words come from sounds with in turn make up a language. Phonics is knowing that sounds are composed of letters which compose a writing style. In order to teach a child phonic awareness and to read, a teacher must comprehend the procedure that the brain formulates in order to understand the printed data. The brain undergoes three functions which facilitate understanding. First, there is information retention which has to deal with spurs of the environment. Second, language articulation is where a child uses prior knowledge in order to associate its meaning; and the third process is modeling and making connections with former information . Reading comprehension occurs in the frontal lobe of the brain. When this process takes place, it leads to an understanding and knowledge of what a person has seen and read. Phonological processing is a personÃ¢â¬â¢s ability to listen andÃ comprehend dialect as well as printed terms. Hence, it is to say that the child recognizes the sound each letter makes. Mechanically our brain unconsciously processes verbal communication. Instantly a child gathers phonemes in order to pronounce the word and decomposes it to grasp the oral language. In contrast to speech, reading involves a childÃ¢â¬â¢s knowledge in the process of associating written words with the alphabet and in turn producing spoken words. Therefore, a child has to be of conscious mind in order to learn reading. A teacher must instruct a child in the phonological sequences of letters in order for the child to acquire phonological processing. There are many different techniques a teacher can utilize in order to build phonological awareness. One technique would be merging words and sounds collectively in order to construct new words. The words composed can be silly or factual. This technique facilitates the childÃ¢â¬â¢s use of phonemes, which was a study conducted by McCandlies, Cohen, and Dehaene in 2003 . Having a child combine letters and then separating them is another form of building phonological awareness. It will also help them in recognizing the letters of the alphabet. Examples of the activities mentioned above are having a child say the first sound in the word Ã¢â¬Å"ratÃ¢â¬ and then saying each letter sound individually. Blending would consist of telling a child say Ã¢â¬ËatÃ¢â¬â¢ and then stating to them to put an Ã¢â¬ËrÃ¢â¬â¢ in front and say the new word. These activities can been done with a variety of materials such as chalk, boards and markers. Remember preschool children are very visual. The more movement they utilize, the better they retain the information. Image is a phonic awareness 3 letter word game. Many people do not see imaginative play as a means of learning. However, it is during play that children are at their most influential developmental stage according to Vygotsky, a Russian psychologist. Since the children are imaging different situations, they are associating everyday activities and assigning meaning to them. During this time, individuals and items can transform themselves into different things. For example, a child can become a cat, or a baby and a piece of construction paper can be converted into a notepad for taking orders in a restaurant. Through the childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s interactions and language, they gather and exchange knowledge, experiences,Ã and vocabulary which enhance their verbal communication through mutual exchange (Genishi and Dyson, 2009). Collaborative songs and games can also be a means to teach phonological awareness. Nursery rhymes can be utilized as a tool for phonological awareness. Rhyming activities such as asking a child which words rhyme or which ones do not rhyme will enhance their awareness. A teacher may also say a word and ask a child which word rhymes with it (Phillips, Clancy-Menchetti, Lonigan, 2008). Some examples would be: this old man, head shoulder knees and toes, one two buckle my shoe and Humpty Dumpty. Games that constitute phonological awareness do not have to come from a book. They can be invented from oneÃ¢â¬â¢s everyday activities. Examples of these activities would be a trip to the grocery store or beauty salon. Children can be asked which items in the store begin with the same letter sound or which nail polishes have the same letters in them. If a child does not respond or say the correct answer, be sure to mirror the correct response and not state that they were wrong. The teacher should support the child through the learning process. The following illustration explains the steps of phonological awareness. Activities which implement pattern recognition are also efficient at phonological awareness. This is an excellent tool to utilize in the classroom due to the fact that children learn how to read by identifying patterns. When a child associates words from letter patterns and connects the sounds, this is called patterning. A teacher should replicate, rehearses, and observe the children when teaching pattern recognition in order to determine the childÃ¢â¬â¢s advancements in this area. Assessments should cover word subdivision, sound combinations, and sorting new data into patterns. Repetition is the key in the learning process. Preschool children have a short attention span; therefore, keep activities fun and exciting in order to facilitate the best learning environment. Not all children have the same literacy background and predisposition; they come from a variety of environments and cultural upbringings. Consequently, teachers must adapt to each individual childÃ¢â¬â¢s style of learning and pace. There will always beÃ variations in the learning process. Technology is a part of our everyday lives. Children have computers, iPhones, iPodÃ¢â¬â¢s, and tablets. Since technology surrounds children twenty -four hours of the day, seven days a week, parents need to take advantage of the situation and use the time wisely. There are many games online which can help children build their phonological awareness. Websites which parents can utilize are: starfall.com, PBSkids.com, ABCmouse.com, learninggamesforkids.com, sheppardsoftware.com, and ezschools.com. All these websites provide educational games for preschool children. They have a variety of subjects such as math, reading, and science. Also they cover the fundamentals of the alphabet, phonics, sounds, and blending. These games are especially interesting for those children who are visual and auditory learners. Percentage of children who are going online daily for educational purposes As stated above, there are many different techniques that a teacher can employ in order to educate a child. Other methods such as repeated reading, modeling fluency, and leap frog are also useful tools in phonological awareness. Children imitate and mimic adult behavior. Therefore, it is vital that a teacher speaks to a child in the appropriate grammatical matter. They will store the information and use it later in other situations that arise. Although a preschool child does not know how to read, they do make associations with words. Hence, reading every day for thirty minutes will build a childÃ¢â¬â¢s vocabulary. Books which have tape recordings and CDs are also good sources for vocabulary buildings, rhyme, and word segmentation. In these days, parents are not concerned about their childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s education. They spend fifty or more dollars on video games instead of providing educational support. It is ignorant for them to believe that programs like VPK and Head Start are providing a child to play and interact socially. Although social interaction is vital to a preschool child, education stimulation is also crucial. Teachers go through countless training sessions in order to provide their students with high standards. There are a variety of sources that parents and teachers can use. Computer games, internet sites, books, rhymes, music and movement, and activities created by the teacher or parent are all ways to provide phonological awareness. Parents and teachers alike have to remember that every child isÃ different and each child has his or her way of thinking and processing information. Thus, educators and parents have to learn their childÃ¢â¬â¢s learning style whether it is audio, visual, or kinesthetic in order to provide a grade a learning environment. Reading, writing, and spelling are the principles of fluency. If children are provided with the proper tools now, they will be better equipped for the future. Remember, the children of today will be the leaders of tomorrow! How to cite Teaching Preschool Children Reading, Papers
Sunday, May 3, 2020
Question: Discuss about the Sociological Description on Health. Answer: Introduction The sociological description on health and illness signifies the interaction between the health and society. Particularly, it describes the impact of society on mortality and morbidity rates. Similarly, it identifies the impact of both morbidity and mortality rates on the social life. Such discipline has the clear focus on the health and illness in referring to the social institutions, such as school, family, religion, and work as the major reasons behind the illness (World Health Organization, 2014). The perceptions of the society influence the health determinants. It is notable that the health illness was merely attributed to the natural or biological conditions. The sociological theories are concerned with the identification of the factors residing within the society that influence the health illness (Berkman, Kawachi Glymour, 2014). The biologists have presented the clear demonstration on the spreading nature of the diseases that is highly influenced by an individuals socioecono mic status. In addition to this, it even depends on the traditions and beliefs as well as the other cultural factors. The study would thus discuss the sociological concerns related to the health determinants. The study would also specify the difference between the sociological theories and the medical model. Discussion The extensive research on the health sociology signifies that the social environment has the clear and recognizable impact on the health determinants. It has been signified that apart from the medical issues, the health sickness of the individuals is highly influenced by the social policies and perceptions. The social model of health is formulated from the social model of disability that is advocated by the disability rights movement (Benach et al., 2014). The social model of health is formulated from the social model of disability that is advocated by the disability rights movement. The development of this social model of disability is the traditional approach to the medical model. The medical model is quote different to the sociological theories related to the health determinants (Braveman Gottlieb, 2014). The development of this social model of disability is the traditional approach to the medical model. The medical model is quote different to the sociological theories related to the health determinants. The sociological theory identifies the inequalities and the social determinants that are causing the health illness among the individuals in the society. In the study of Epidemiology, the distribution of the mortality and morbidity is clearly portrayed. According to Marmot Allen (2014), Epidemiologists are extensively focusing on the disease patterns and the group of victims. In fact, they are paying more attention in identifying the effects of the related interventions. The perceptions of the society influence the health determinants. Some of the health diseases like Eating disorder, extra consumption of alcohol, mental or physical disabilities are much influenced by the societal perspectives (Johnston, Fanzo Cogill, 2014). The sociological perspectives on health and illness are described further in detail. There are four major concepts associated with the sociological perspectives on the health determinants. First is Functional Perspectives, which depicts that the illness is one form of deviance that affects the social functions of the society. Structuralism is the sociological theory that presents the views of society elements as a part of self-supporting structure (Cockerham, 2014). Functionalism explains the societal perspectives in terms of the health illness in a specific society. The functionalist theorists like Herbert Spencer, Auguste Comte, Talcott Parsons, Robert Merton, and others have pointed out the complexities in the society to promote stability and solidarity. The functionalism framework perceives society as the complex system that has the significant impact on the social structure (Allen et al., 2014). Parson argued that the most effective process of understanding sociological health illness is to describe it as the emblem of deviance, which creates obstacle in the soc ial functionalities. Many of the critics even have argued the view point mentioned in the functionalism theory. Another theory is Conflict Perspective that implies the influence of the political and economical structure. It has been specified that due to the recognizable influence of the political and economic values in the society, the inequalities, social divisions, and conflicts are created (Eldredge et al., 2016). The conflict theory is mostly associated with the Marxist perspective that points out the power of capitalism. As per the theoretical concept, it is notified that capitalism creates the tension among the society people that influence the health illness. On the other hand, C. Wright Mills argued that the social structures are generally created by recognizing conflicts between the diverse people in the society. The unequal distribution of power among the individuals in the society is instigating the health determinants in a significant way. The next conceptual theory is Interactionist Perspective that deals with the social constructed health determinants. The symbolic interactionists investigated about the meaning that has been created during social interactions. According to Castaeda et al., (2015), recognition of the situation is essential during the social interaction. As per the constructivist grounded theory, it has been specified that establishing the linking between the mutual constructivism helps in creating the relation between the researcher and the participants. Poverty, poor housing, social exclusion, and poor health systems are the major reasons behind the health determinants (Ash, 2016). According to the social theorists, the inequality among the individuals in society is also one of the major reasons for the health illness. The quality of life depends on the condition of the country or the society. It is reported that there is the expectancy of life signifies 20 years of gap between the Torres Strait Island and Australian Aboriginal land. In fact, the health determinants even depends on the income rate of the individuals within a society. Even though the government has imposed several policies to tackle socially determined health inequalities, some of the effects are still remaining in the society (Garg, Boynton-Jarrett Dworkin, 2016). The social model of health is formulated from the social model of disability that is advocated by the disability rights movement. The development of this social model of disability is the traditional approach to the medical model. The medical model is quote different to the sociological theories related to the health determinants. The sociological theory identifies the inequalities and the social determinants that are causing the health illness among the individuals in the society. On the other hand, the medical model examines the factors that c ontribute to such health determinants. The medical model helps in preventing the health illness by developing the societal awareness. For example, in current time, the eating disorder is one of the most foreseeable health determinants among the youth group in the society. It is notable that the societal influence has been the major cause behind such eating disorder. The youth group of people is much conscious about their appearance since they usually face the judgments of the society. In order to maintain the health standard, they often consume the lesser amount of foods that increases the health determinants (Berkman, Kawachi Glymour, 2014). Such societal perspectives are invoking the mental health of the young people that are leading them towards health illness recognizably. It is already mentioned that capitalism creates the tension among the society people that influence the health illness. Hence, it can be stated that due to the shortage of money or the unequal income rate, many people in the society are unable to afford adequate food. Due to such lesser consumption of the healthy food, most of the people fac e the challenges in terms of their health illness. Moreover, the inequality residing among the social perceptions are also affecting the mental health of the individuals (Garg, Boynton-Jarrett Dworkin, 2016). The medical model is examining the process of preventing such issues to develop the societal constructivism. In fact, it is necessary to reduce the social stratification to develop the better health approaches and eliminate the determinants in the society. Conclusion Social stratification and societal perspectives are the key elements that instigate the health determinants among the individuals. The perceptions of the society influence the health determinants. The sociological theories are concerned with the identification of the factors residing within the society that influence the health illness. The functionalism framework perceives society as the complex system that has the significant impact on the social structure. On the other hand, the medical model examines such factors and identifies the method of mitigating such social issues. The critics and arguments presented by the different theorists specify the social influence upon the youth group. Eating disorder is one of the most common health determinant recognized within a society. It was noticed that the societal perspectives invokes the mental health of the young group. They often skip consuming adequate food which causes the health illness. Moreover, the inequality maintained in the soc iety is also sometimes affecting the health factors of the individuals. The social model of health is formulated from the social model of disability that is advocated by the disability rights movement. The development of this social model of disability is the traditional approach to the medical model. The medical model is quote different to the sociological theories related to the health determinants. References Allen, J., Balfour, R., Bell, R., Marmot, M. (2014). Social determinants of mental health.International Review of Psychiatry,26(4), 392-407. Ash, A. S. (2016). Medical, Social, and Other Determinants of Health Care Costs in MassHealth. Benach, J., Vives, A., Amable, M., Vanroelen, C., Tarafa, G., Muntaner, C. (2014). Precarious employment: understanding an emerging social determinant of health.Annual review of public health,35. Berkman, L. F., Kawachi, I., Glymour, M. M. (Eds.). (2014).Social epidemiology. Oxford University Press. Braveman, P., Gottlieb, L. (2014). The social determinants of health: it's time to consider the causes of the causes.Public Health Reports,129., 19-31. Castaeda, H., Holmes, S. M., Madrigal, D. S., Young, M. E. D., Beyeler, N., Quesada, J. (2015). Immigration as a social determinant of health.Annual review of public health,36, 375-392. Cockerham, W. C. (2014).Medical sociology. John Wiley Sons, Ltd. Eldredge, L. K. B., Markham, C. M., Ruiter, R. A., Kok, G., Parcel, G. S. (2016).Planning health promotion programs: an intervention mapping approach. John Wiley Sons. Garg, A., Boynton-Jarrett, R., Dworkin, P. H. (2016). Avoiding the unintended consequences of screening for social determinants of health.Jama,316(8), 813-814. Johnston, J. L., Fanzo, J. C., Cogill, B. (2014). Understanding sustainable diets: a descriptive analysis of the determinants and processes that influence diets and their impact on health, food security, and environmental sustainability.Advances in Nutrition: An International Review Journal,5(4), 418-429. Marmot, M., Allen, J. J. (2014). Social determinants of health equity. World Health Organization. (2014).Social determinants of mental health. World Health Organization.
Friday, March 27, 2020
The American Workforce: How It Has Changed Kathy Reed SOC304: Social Gerontology Professor Marie Mika August 1, 2011 The American Workforce: How It Has Changed The workforce has always been the backbone of America, ever since the beginning of time to the modern world of today. It begin with the men of the family going out and working, while the women stayed at home and took care of the children and the home. The workforce for men and women has changed because of the consequences of age, gender, immigration, politics, education and the economy. Even though the workforce has been affected by these consequences, the question is now, what can be done to make sure it is sustainable for the future. The following will cover the consequences of change, healthcare cost, and housing needs, social security, and programs for the aging. First, the consequences, such as age, gender, immigration, politics, education and the economy has made the percentage of the workforce change drastically. We will write a custom essay sample on The American Workforce: How It Has Changed or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page Lee, M. A. , Mather,M. , (2008) states that: Ã¢â¬Å"the historical growth of the U. S. labor force in the four decades is linked to two main factors: growth in population size and increases in womenÃ¢â¬â¢s labor force participation rates. In the 1960s, the U. S. labor force increased by 1. 7 percent annually as baby boomers those born during the high-fertility period from 1946-1964 started to enter the workforce. Labor force growth accelerated during the 1970s as more baby boomers reached adulthood. At the same time, women started to enter the labor force in greater numbers. As a result of both of these trends, the labor force grew at a fast pace of 26 percent each year. Ã¢â¬ There are several people of the baby boomer era, including myself, that have changed jobs more once throughout our life growing and preparing for a comfortable life for our family and the future, there are some that have retired, became disabled or suffered the loss of a loved one, but with the workforce changes, some of us have suffered more than one type of loss. According to, Dennis Cauchon: only 45. % of Americans had jobs in 2010, the lowest rate since 1983 and down from a peak of 49. 3% in 2000. Last year, just 66. 8% of men had jobs, the lowest on record. The bad economy, an aging population and a plateau in women working are contributing to changes that pose serious challenges for financing the nationÃ¢â¬â¢s social programs. For example, job troubles appear to have slowed a trend of people working later in life, putting more pressure on Social Security says Marc Goldwei n. Another change: the bulk of those not working have shifted from children to adults. The aging of 77 million baby boomers born from 1946 through 1964 from children to workers to retirees is changing the relationship between workers and dependents. Ã¢â¬ In the trends of men and women working, they are different because, when looking back in history, men has always been the person to build a financial basis for the family and over time women have increase their presence in the workforce, which added to the financial basis of the family structure. Then there are women who are single parents and they have increased the workforce as well, they sometimes have more than one job. Then there is the diversity, racial and ethical differences in the workforce make up a large ratio when it comes to any race or ethnic group according to various surveys. Another trait that affects the baby boomers is age discrimination, because of the economy; some employers are finding ways to get rid of, force retirement or lay off older employees and replace them with younger employees that will accept the pay offered just to have a job or an opportunity to excel throughout the company. The Age Discrimination in Employment Act of 1967 (ADEA) banned discrimination against workers aged 40 to 65 and forbade employers to fire, demote, or reduce the salaries of older workers without good cause. Yet age discrimination still occurs. Although ads stating that no one over 40 will be hired are no longer legal over 20,000 claims of age discrimination are filed each year. The problem is proving it. Although the ADEA has prevented employers from many older workers, it has had little effect on hiring (Quadagno, 2011, p. 235). When a person gets to the age ransition (40 or older) of working for years, raising their family, there comes the time when you have to start preparing for retirement, not just planning it. The children are getting older or have already left the house and started on their own. People will consider the benefits they will receive when they retire and health benefits are very important because of the possibilities of health concerns that are current or that cou ld happen later in life. Retirement is also the time to think about taking time to enjoy the time off, being with family, friends and the grandchildren. Also trying to stay active and healthy is an important part of retirement. When a person has worked for certain of years for a company to provide for their family and themselves and they want their retirement to reflect the success of planning and preparing and that it will be able to sustain their way of living in their retirement years. Lauer, R. H. , Lauer, J. C. , (2008, P. 290), writes Ã¢â¬Å"that all things change. The American economy, the nature of work, and the nature of the workforce are vastly different today from what they were at various times in the past. Initially, the Unites States was an agrarian society, that is, a society in which agriculture is the dominant form of work and people and animals are the major sources of energy. In the competitive context of the global economy, a number of changes have occurred that are detrimental to the well-being of many American workers. As a results of such changes, many Americans are not only unable to better their lot in comparison to their parents, but are finding them worse off than their parents. Ã¢â¬ The United States Department of Labor (USDL) states: Ã¢â¬Å"who are the workers of the future? Many of them will be older versions of us. In fact, over half of the population of 2030 is alive today. Over the next fifty years, the population of the United States is expected to grow by nearly 50 percent, from about 257 million in the year 2000 to an estimated 394 million people in 2050. U. S. population growth is influence by immigration and emigration rates, as well as by birth and death rates. Immigration will play the largest role in the growth of the Unites States through mid-century. Ã¢â¬ Additionally, there is the health care and cost of the aging population, which is those that were born between 1946 and 1969 and most of the baby boomers are preparing to retire. The health care cost for the aging can increase drastically, because of the number of aging adults entering retirement and some have insurance coverage for of their current health conditions and others may not, but is there also the concern for future health concerns, and whether or not they will be able to pay they those services if needed or if their insurance will cover it. A healthier lifestyle can help increase a longer life and decrease the multiple health concerns and conditions a person can acquire from aging. David M. Lawrence (2010,p. 82-85) writes, what liable to happen in the next forty years in medical advancements and healthcare? We propose a scenario. Some things donÃ¢â¬â¢t change. We will still get old and gradually lose our facilities, our mobility, even our independence. Eventually we will die, most of us suffering from chronic conditions. Death will not be an option, nor will itÃ¢â¬â¢s prelude be a gentle descent. To believe differently is to live with false hope. But by 2050, important changes will occur in the medical care we will receive and the way in which we receive it. Victoria R Ballesteros Athan G Bezaitis, (2011,p. 50-52) writes, in June 2009, The SCAN Foundation commissioned a national survey to understand public opinion toward long- term care and its association with healthcare reform. The poll overwhelmingly demonstrated peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s concern about being able to afford long-term care services in the future, and showed broad-based support for improving coverage for home and community based services. Nine out ten Americans (92%) said it was important insurance coverage for services that help people remain in their homes instead of going to skilled nursing facilities. Furthermore, eight in ten Americans (80%) supported improving insurance coverage for home and community based long-term care services as part of healthcare reform, again with support crossing party lines. According to Science Daily (2010, December 20) increased life expectance in the United States has not been accompanied by more years of perfect health, reveals new research published in the December issue of the Journal of Gerontology. Indeed, a 20 year old today can expect to live one less healthy year over his or her lifespan than a 20 year old a decade ago, even though life expectancy has grown. From 1970-2005, the probability of a 65 year old surviving to age 85 doubled, from about a 20 percent chance to a 40 percent chance. Many researchers presumed that the same forces allowing people to live longer, including better health behaviors and medical advances, would also delay the onset of disease and allow people to spend fewer years of their lives with debilitating illness. Although such factors as heredity and biology partially determine whether an individual develops a chronic disease, research also shows that social factors play an important role. The likelihood of developing a chronic disease that produces disability is partly a function of oneÃ¢â¬â¢s health lifestyle, defined as a pattern of behavior based on choices and options that are available to people according to their life situations. Health lifestyles include behaviors that directly affect health care, such as having checkups and complying with prescribed treatment, as well as decisions about smoking, food, exercise, personal hygiene alcohol use, and risky behaviors such as unprotected sex. (Quadagno,2011,p. 257).
Friday, March 6, 2020
The early schooling of Nicolas Vidal The outlaw, Nicolas Vidal, in AllendeÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬Å"The PreacherÃ¢â¬â¢s WifeÃ¢â¬ is a key player in a story story devout with good and evil characters. Nicolas like any other child was not born of the dark side. Young Vidal was a product of wicked treatment at an early age. Key events such as a bad omen, and his mothersÃ¢â¬â¢ child rearing skills, created NicolasÃ¢â¬â¢ heart of evil. In this story are examples which support this theory. NicolasÃ¢â¬â¢s mother, Juana the Forlorn, was a sick individual at best. She was a prostitute with no room for a child; as Nicolas was definitely not a planned pregnancy. Juana used several methods to try and abort her young child. These actions were sewing The seeds of non-love, while Nicolas was still in the womb. Little did she know, Ms. Forlorn was hardening her sonÃ¢â¬â¢s soul, and making him jaded to love. He was ready to take The world on when he was first born. A profession of boxing would have been an Alternative career for someone who felt no pain like Nicolas. Nicolas is pursued by an evil omen starting at birth, and following him all his Days. It is this omen which finally helps him to end his life. When Nicolas is first born He has four nipples. This is a sign that a woman will be his undoing. Later in life he Consults the advise aof a soothsayer and she confirms his fate. Nicolas makes this Floyd 2 Prophecy true when he does not run away at the end of the story. He knows well the Soldiers will probably kill him on sight. Once again, Juana the ForlornÃ¢â¬â¢s Parenting skills are in question. Besides trying to Kill Nicolas at birth, most importantly she did not show him love. A motherÃ¢â¬â¢s lo... Free Essays on The Early Cchooling Of Nicolas Vidal Free Essays on The Early Cchooling Of Nicolas Vidal The early schooling of Nicolas Vidal The outlaw, Nicolas Vidal, in AllendeÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬Å"The PreacherÃ¢â¬â¢s WifeÃ¢â¬ is a key player in a story story devout with good and evil characters. Nicolas like any other child was not born of the dark side. Young Vidal was a product of wicked treatment at an early age. Key events such as a bad omen, and his mothersÃ¢â¬â¢ child rearing skills, created NicolasÃ¢â¬â¢ heart of evil. In this story are examples which support this theory. NicolasÃ¢â¬â¢s mother, Juana the Forlorn, was a sick individual at best. She was a prostitute with no room for a child; as Nicolas was definitely not a planned pregnancy. Juana used several methods to try and abort her young child. These actions were sewing The seeds of non-love, while Nicolas was still in the womb. Little did she know, Ms. Forlorn was hardening her sonÃ¢â¬â¢s soul, and making him jaded to love. He was ready to take The world on when he was first born. A profession of boxing would have been an Alternative career for someone who felt no pain like Nicolas. Nicolas is pursued by an evil omen starting at birth, and following him all his Days. It is this omen which finally helps him to end his life. When Nicolas is first born He has four nipples. This is a sign that a woman will be his undoing. Later in life he Consults the advise aof a soothsayer and she confirms his fate. Nicolas makes this Floyd 2 Prophecy true when he does not run away at the end of the story. He knows well the Soldiers will probably kill him on sight. Once again, Juana the ForlornÃ¢â¬â¢s Parenting skills are in question. Besides trying to Kill Nicolas at birth, most importantly she did not show him love. A motherÃ¢â¬â¢s lo...
Wednesday, February 19, 2020
Surviving a JCAHO Audit - Essay Example One of the most important of those regulatory bodies is the Joint Commission on Accreditation of Healthcare Organizations (JCAHO). JCAHO is a not-for-profit organization operating with the preliminary purpose of providing voluntary accreditation to healthcare organizations. Over the course of eighty-eight (88) years, it has evolved from its humble beginnings when the first hospital inspections were performed by a single body, the American College of Surgeons (ACS) in 1918. The ACS utilized a very rudimentary system for inspecting hospitals whereby minimal standards were utilized as a means of setting the standards for accreditation. The ACS served as a solitary regulatory board from 1918 until 1951 when the ACS joined forces with the American College of Physicians, the American Hospital Association, the American Medical Association, and the Canadian Medical Association to establish what was known as the Joint Commission on Accreditation of Hospitals (JCAH). The JCAH soon replaced the ACS as the organization responsible for setting the standards for the delivery of safe and appropriate care for patients within t hose organizations. This commission was responsible for the publication of the first Standards for Hospital Accreditation (AORN Journal, 2002). In 1965, under the leadership of President Lyndon B. Johnson, the Medicare Act of 1965 was passed. This meant a drastic shift in the role of JCAH. For the first time, JCAH became closely aligned with the federal government and facilitated an inalienable relationship with governmental funding and JCAH accreditation. For the first time, the law made provisions for hospitals which were accredited by JCAH wherein those hospitals were automatically viewed as being in compliance with most of the provisions of the Medicare program and were eligible to participate in the Medicare program. As such, the accredited hospitals were able to reap the monetary rewards of being active Medicare participation (AORN Journal, 2002). In 1975, JCAH expanded its scope by becoming the main accrediting body for ambulatory health care facilities. This expansion was facilitated by an involvement with Accreditation Council for Ambulatory Health Care. Over the next decade, JACH established a series of committees which were known as the Professional and Technical Advisory Committees (PTAC) for each program it was responsible for accrediting. Finally, in 1987, JCAH changed its name to the Joint Commission on Accreditation of Healthcare Organizations as a means of reiterating its large range of accreditation activities. To date, JCAHO has established a large board of commissioners which includes a nursing representative who provides input with regards to nursing policy (AORN Journal, 2002). Functions of JCAHO JCAHO is responsible for evaluating and accrediting over 15,000 healthcare institutions and individual programs throughout the U.S. In so doing it provides services to the following general class of organizations: Hospitals [including general medical, psychiatric and pediatric hospitals as well as rehabilitation hospitals]. Nursing homes Hospices Home care organizations Addiction services Laboratories Rehabilitation centers Ambulatory care providers Independent laboratories Group practices In addition to accrediting the aforementioned organizations, JACHO also awards certification to health plans, hospitals and other institutions which provide disease management services as well as